Each person periodically passes the procedure for measuring blood pressure, but few people think about what the figures obtained as a result mean. Patients know that the pressure should be normal, and not high or low. Dr. Alexander Yuryevich Shishonin will tell about what systolic and diastolic blood pressure.
Each person periodically passes the procedure for measuring blood pressure, but few people think about what the figures obtained as a result mean. Patients know that the pressure should be "normal", and not "high" or "low." Dr. Alexander Yuryevich Shishonin will tell about what systolic and diastolic blood pressure.
What is systolic and diastolic pressure
When visiting a doctor, the patient is very often measured by blood pressure, because this indicator is very important. People's older tonsometers appear in older people with the help of which they track their pressure and control well-being. But what does blood pressure from a medical point of view mean?
When the blood moves along the vessels, it presses on their walls and causes tension in the vessel. This indicator is called arterial pressure and is measured in millimeters of a mercury pillar.
When the heart muscle is reduced, there are two phases:
- Systole - the moment of maximum tension of the heart muscle, when it pumps blood and directs it by arteries. Systolic pressure is sometimes called heartfelt.
- Diastole is the moment of maximum relaxation of the heart muscle when she gains blood from the veins. Pressure in this phase is sometimes called vascular.
When measuring blood pressure, two digits always turn out. For example, 110/70 means that the systolic pressure is 110, and diastolic - 70.
The pressure indicators affect the following factors:
- The amount of blood that the heart throws over one reduction. The more blood it sends in artery and capillaries, the higher the pressure indicator.
- The state of the vessels, capillaries and the walls of the aorta. With age, the clearance of vessels is reduced by various reasons, as a result of which the pressure is growing.
- The amount of blood, which is located in all vessels of man. The smaller the volume circulates, the lower the pressure will be.
- Heart ability to fully relax in the diastole phase. If the heart works on wear without rest, the numbers on the tonometer will be lower.
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Systolic and diastolic pressure ratio
Why doctors say that diastolic pressure is more important than systolic? Systolic pressure is a floating value. For example, you have normal blood pressure for your age in calm condition. If you are experiencing any stress or minor physical activity, the heart starts working more active. In this case, systolic pressure is growing, and the diastolic pressure should be lower. This result will receive a person who has no problems with the cardiovascular system.
If, with mental and physical exertion, systolic pressure is growing, and the diastolic remains at the same level or rises, it means there are certain problems and it is worth consulting a doctor.
Important: With hypertension, diastolic pressure during loads first remains at the same level, and then begins to grow.
Why is diastolic pressure more important?
The diastolic pressure is an indicator that combines two factors.
- The first factor concludes how hard or relaxed capillaries of the body. If the capillaries are strongly compressed, the diastolic pressure will be higher. This suggests that there are failures in the cardiovascular system, hypertensive syndrome may be present. If the capillaries, on the contrary, are relaxed, the diastole pressure drops.
- The second factor that affects the diastolic pressure shows how much the heart muscle is relaxed with its diastole. If the heart relaxes badly, it means it cannot relax normally, respectively, it works for wear. Overloading of the heart muscle occurs, which is fraught with the development of other problems.
Doctor Council: An experienced cardiologist immediately draws attention to what the indicators are diastoles, and prescribes the necessary treatment.
That is why, with hypertensive syndrome, it is very important not only to observe increased systolic pressure, but also to monitor the diastolic pressure. Patients can independently measure the pressure of the house and watch what numbers it receives when measuring. So you can understand whether there are problems with diastole at home, and to pay attention to them.
Why you need to contact a specialist
In the treatment of hypertensive syndrome, it is important to deal with what kind of factor affected the bad diastolic pressure indicators. In the vessels of the vessels, some drugs are prescribed, and with insufficient relaxation of the heart - absolutely others.
Important: Alone, the patient can not understand what exactly the problem: strongly compressed vessels or poorly relaxed heart muscle. It is important to consult a doctor and find out the causes of the disease.
Under reduced pressure, the supply of all organism systems deteriorates, oxygen starvation, brain and other disorders can develop. Increased pressure threatens stroke, infarction, blindness, renal failure and other terrible consequences.
Dr. Shishonin calls on patients not to forget about his health, regularly undergo surveys and attend a doctor if there are problems. If you recognize the disease at an early stage, it can be quickly cured even without the use of medicines. Hypertension is a disease that can be overcome.
What pressure is considered high
Elevated blood pressure is a dangerous state that can not worry a person for a long time, but at the same time lead to irreversible changes in the body. Hypertensive disease (hypertension) refers to the most common diseases in the world.
In 20-30% of the adult population, there is a persistent increase in pressure, and people over 65 this indicator reaches 50-65%.
What do pressure digits mean? Blood pressure (AD) shows the strength of blood effects on the walls of the vessels and is recorded in the form of two numbers through the fraction: the upper (systolic) blood pressure and the lower (diastolic) blood pressure. These parameters reflect blood pressure at the time of active heart reduction (in systole) and when relaxing the heart muscle (in diastole). The indicator is measured in millimeters of a mercury pillar (mm. Hg. Art.).
Normally, the values of the AD should be within 110-129 / 70-84 mm. RT. Art. If the tonometer arrow indicates the numbers 130/85 and above - this is a reason to alert. Increased normal pressure can be a sign of pre-readion - boundary state, which is most often developing into a hypertensive disease. Increased pressure is considered in the event that the upper blood pressure turns out to be more than 140 mm. RT. Art., and the bottom is more than 90 mm. RT. Art (Fig. 1).
If the blood pressure is constantly improved, this is a hypertensive disease. At the same time, the higher the blood pressure, the greater the risk of serious damage to the heart, arteries and other organs important to life.
Hypertension is the first cause of heart attacks and strokes around the world. But the development of complications in hypertension can and should be prevented. First of all, it is necessary to control hell and keep it within normal values.
How to measure pressure using a mechanical tonometer
In order to measure pressure with a mechanical tonometer (video 1), you need:
- sit in a comfortable position and relax, the hand should be bent in the elbow joint and lie on a flat surface,
- The shoulder part of the hand is free from clothes and fix the cuff on it (its lower edge should be above the elbow bend by 3-4 cm),
- Install the stethoscope (phonenadoscope) on the inside of the bending of the elbow joint in the place where the pulse is best suited,
- With the help of a hand pump, start downloading the air into the cuff,
- The pressure gauge arrow to bring to the values exceeding the estimated pressure by 30-40 mm. RT. Art. (for example, if the normal pressure of the patient is 135/90, then you can stop on the figure 170),
- slowly produce air from the cuff, waiting for the appearance of the tones - these are heartbeat sounds; Their appearance denotes the systolic pressure boundary, and the disappearance is diastolic. Simply put, if the tones appeared on the number 150 and disappeared on the figure 100, then the result is 150/100).
Video 1. How to measure pressure to a mechanical tonometer.
It is easier to use an automatic tonometer (you do not need to listen to heart rhythm yourself), but it is less accurate. Such instruments on batteries or networks.
Causes of hypertension
Hypertensive disease (GB) is a disease in which the pressure is increased without a specific reason. If the hell rises in connection with diseases of the kidneys, hormonal disorders, other innate or acquired diseases, speak of secondary arterial hypertension.
Much attention in the development of hypertensive disease is given heredity. It has been proven that increased pressure from the nearest relatives, especially at a young age, is a significant risk factor for the appearance of hypertension. But even in this case, you can prevent or slow down the development of GB: it is sufficient to eliminate all the risk factors that provoke an increase in pressure.
Who is in the risk group?
In a high risk group for the development of hypertensive disease:
- Men over the age of 55, women older than 65 years;
- People with the upper obesity type (with a waist circle in men more than 102 cm, and in women - more than 88 cm);
- alcohol abusers;
- People who are subject to stressful influence;
- Men and women leading a sedentary lifestyle;
- Patients with other chronic diseases.
Increase the risk of hypertension can also:
- non-compliance with the principles of proper nutrition;
- excessive salt content in the diet;
- Some metabolic disorders;
- the accumulation of "harmful" lipids in the blood;
- Other states that affect the work of the heart and blood vessels.
How is high pressure manifest
The danger of hypertensive disease is that the internal organs amazing in the years over the years, but does not exist externally in any way. No specific signs of hypertension: all the complaints arise only when the disease is influenced by various organs and systems of the body. With long-term increase, hell may appear:
- pulsating headaches;
- dizziness, coordination violation;
- memory violation, the ability to concentrate attention;
- Facial redness;
- increased sweating;
- Breaking of vessels, nose bleeding;
- impairment of vision, fifteen flaps and "flies" before your eyes;
- irritability, unreasonable feeling of anxiety;
- Weakness, fatigue.
When should I refer to the doctor?
Hypertensive needs to be held regular medical examinations - control the course of the disease and assess the risks of complications. Be sure to seek medical care in the case of a hypertensive crisis - a sharp rise in hell to high values. The condition is accompanied by such symptoms as:
- Headache, dizziness;
- difficulty breathing, feeling of air shortness;
- nausea, vomiting;
- heart palpitations;
- chills, trembling, feeling heat;
- muscle trembling, convulsions;
- loss of consciousness.
The ambulance brigade immediately needs to be caused in the case of acute pain for the sternum, violations of speech, consciousness, facial expressions, movements in the limbs - these signs speak of myocardial infarction or stroke.
How to quickly reduce blood pressure?
The main task in the situation, if the tonometer arrows rise above the usual figures, - reduce the pressure quickly, without waiting for the occurrence of a hypertonic crisis.
Priority events that will help bring hell to normal:
- Carrying. Fresh air helps to saturate blood oxygen, improve its physical properties, soothes and comprehensively affects the stabilization of the vessels.
- Deep breathing. Respiratory practice is one of the most effective ways to stabilize the pressure in the vessels. First of all, you need to remove the gulling clothes, unzip the belt, bra. Then you should relax, close your eyes and take a deep breath of the stomach, not a breast, mentally considering up to five. Exhale should also be slow: try to exhale for 5 seconds. After 3-5 minutes of such relaxation, the manifestations of stress disappear and the influx of blood to the tissues increases.
- Relaxation. It is important to take a convenient posture, turn off the light, music and other irritating factors.
- Neck massage. It is in the zone of the cervical spine there are vessels that feed the brain and affect the system pressure. The massage of the cervical-collar zone is an effective means of reducing blood pressure, it is only important to monitor the right technique. Massage movements should be directed from top to bottom - from head to shoulders, otherwise there is a risk of getting the opposite effect (provoking hypertensive crisis).
- Cool water. The best tool for emergency pressure reduction is cool compresses. If there is no time for compresses, you can simply hold hands under cool running water. The method is valid due to the reflex reduction in the frequency of heart cuts - as a result of this, blood pressure is reduced. It is important that the water is not icy, but only slightly below room temperature.
- Hot baths. Although cool compresses are a more common option to combat elevated blood pressure, immersion of hands or feet for 10 minutes in hot water will give no less quick results. The temperature of the water should be higher than the body temperature - about 45 ° C. The result is the expansion of blood vessels and blood flow to the limbs, which reduces the pressure.
- Soothing tea. Even if the rise of blood pressure is not associated with emotional experiences, the effect of herbs with a sedative effect will help to normalize the work of the cardiovascular system. Buy home tea with mint. This plant stabilizes neuromuscular transmission, relaxes the walls of the vessels and gently reduces blood pressure.
- Compress with vinegar. Physical methods of temperature reduction will fit and in the case of increased blood pressure. In half a glass of water temperature, you need to add the same number of 9% of the cutlery, moisten the gauze or tissue in the solution and attach the compress to the forehead for 15-20 minutes. Also efficiently use of apple vinegar and applying compresses to the feet.
From the drugs you can try soothing: effectively reduces the pressure of Valerian and the means based on it, which exist in almost every first-aid kit. The pressure reduction occurs due to the slowdown of heart cuts.
Tablets to reduce pressure
The most effective way to reduce blood pressure is medication. Antihypertensive drugs can be divided into two large groups: tablets for continuously maintaining blood pressure, and ambulance means, which allow you to quickly reduce the pressure.
The main groups of drugs that can be assigned to permanent reception:
- Alpha and beta adrenoblays. Influence on different prechetors of the sympathetic nervous system. They are mainly due to a decrease in the severity of adrenaline effects: reduce the heart rate, relax muscles in the walls of the vessels.
- Inhibitors of angiotensin glossy enzyme (ACE). Prevent the narrowing of the vessels due to the reduction of their muscle structures, so do not allow to rise in pressure.
- Blockers of angiotensin receptors (sconce). Provide the extension of vessels, effectively warn increase blood pressure.
- Calcium channel blockers (BKK). Effective on the exchange of calcium, these drugs relax and expand the vessels.
- Diuretics. Preparations of this group remove excess liquid from the body, reducing the load on the heart.
What to put in the first-aid kit
Doctors often recommend hypertensive to assemble the first aid kit, where they can include:
- Some funds from the ACE inhibitors group - they must be put under the tongue for the rapid effect;
- Preparations in drops from the BACK group - depending on the numbers on the tonometer, you will need a certain amount of drops on a piece of bread or sugar, they need to be kept in the mouth as long as possible;
- Injection remedies - famous "Magnesia" and other drugs for intramuscular administration can help urgently reduce blood pressure and even cope with a hypertensive crisis.
Important! Self-medication in hypertension is unacceptable. It is necessary that the drugs chose a specialist - a family doctor, a therapist or a cardiologist. When prescribing drugs for a long time, it is impossible to cancel medication yourself or skip the reception of the tablets. Doctors recommend to start a diary, every day to record blood pressure indicators and note the fulfillment of the appointment of the doctor. The means for rapidly reduce pressure are also selected on the recommendation of the doctor, and in the case of the "ambulance" call before the arrival of the medical workers, the medicine is better not to take.
Homemade Pressure Reduction
Often an episode of increasing hell caresses the surprise when there are no designated drugs in the first-aid kit. In such cases, you can take advantage of how to reduce pressure with the help of other means.
Biologically active additives
Bades are vitamins, minerals and other substances that have beneficial effects on the body and replenish the deficits of biochemical elements. As a rule, biologically active additives that affect the heart also have a positive effect on the vessels, normalizing blood pressure.
The "cardiovascular" bass includes amino acids, polyunsaturated fatty acids, some vitamins and minerals (Fig. 2).
Figure 2. Basic dietary supplements that are used in the treatment of hypertension. Source: Medportal, Wikipedia. Org.
Important! Despite the relative safety of taking dietary dietary, before applying these substances, it is necessary to consult with the doctor and pass appropriate analyzes. In the absence of a shortage of vitamins, the receiving agents can lead to hypervitaminosis, which is even worse than the lack of these substances. Macroelements that participate in the work of the cardiovascular system: calcium, magnesium, sodium, potassium are taken with extreme caution.
Diet to normalize pressure
Nutrition with hypertension is an important component of treatment. It is necessary to exclude fats from animal fats, fatty and sharp foods, fried dishes, semi-finished products, smoked foods, fast food. Hypertensive is recommended to give preference to baked and boiled dishes, vegetables and fruits, learn the recipes for making meat and garnish for a couple, refuse sugar, sweets, baking.
With an increased hell, salted products should be deleted from the diet (Fig. 3). A sufficient amount of salt (5 g per day) daily enters the human body with food. The sodium contained in salt delays the fluid in the body, increasing the load on the heart and vessels. Sodium consumption rate for a person is 2.3 g per day.
What products reduce pressure
To improve the work of the cardiovascular system, it is necessary to ensure sufficient entry from food potassium and magnesium. These macroelements improve heart performance and stabilize blood pressure. In order not to take minerals in the form of dietary supplements, you can enter the appropriate products in the diet (Fig. 4).
Folk remedies for pressure reduction
There are funds of traditional medicine, which reduce pressure no less efficiently than drug preparations. Basically, such recipes are based on the use of natural substances - plants, fruits, trees bark. Most of the phytopreparations have a comprehensive effect: they stabilize the work of the heart, cell activity and vessel state.
Useful substances in beets gently reduce blood pressure due to the content of magnesium and natural biologically active substances. It is important to drink no more than 100 ml of juice per day.
Citrus strengthens the walls of the vessels due to the high content of vitamin C. Due to this, cardiovascular diseases are preventing, including hypertension.
To reduce hell, this drink is important to prepare correctly: with hypertension you can drink only fastening hot tea. Under the action of high temperature, the leaves of green tea have a hypotonic effect. This means accumulative effect: decreased pressure by 10-15 mm. RT. Art. It will not be earlier than in a month of its regular use.
This plant is rich in antioxidants, which improve the condition of vascular walls and stabilize hell. Hypertensive can eat daily several garlic cloves, prepare ragners from a plant or mix freshly squeezed garlic juice with crushed lemon and honey.
Therapeutic properties of viburnum fruits are used for different diseases. To reduce hell, it is recommended to abandon fresh berries of viburnum with honey or consume pure canine juice 50 ml 2-3 times a day.
Rosehip and hawthorn
The fruits of these plants contain a multivitamin complex, which strengthens the walls of the vessels, normalizing pressure in the arteries. For preparation of medication 1 Art. l. The crushed rose rose fruits are poured with a glass of boiling water, bring to a boil and insist for 50-60 minutes. Dose agent depends on pressure level.
This natural sugar substitute provides several positive effects: expands the vessels, derives excess sodium from the body, does not increase blood glucose levels. Apply stevia instead of sugar, in the form of tablets or dry matter.
Len has unique properties: it is rich in fiber and healthy vegetable fats. Flax seeds can be confused in flour for use in cooking, add in pure form in porridge or salads.
This plant contains a large amount of vitamins and macroelements that are necessary to maintain blood pressure within the normal range. For medicinal purposes, it is recommended to cook champs and tinctures from the roots and leaves of Khrena.
In the sea buckthorn contains a large amount of vitamin C, B, fatty acids. To reduce pressure, it is recommended to apply a decoction of bark of sea buckthorn, infusion of sea buckthorn leaves, grind berries with honey or sugar.
The ginger root is known for the properties of the activation of metabolism, but with long-term heat treatment, its active substances disclose their hypotonic properties.
Prevention of hypertension
To prevent hell, you need to follow a few simple rules:
- adhere to the principles of a healthy lifestyle;
- eat right;
- teach yourself to regular physical activity;
- monitor weight;
- Avoid stressful situations (Fig. 5).
In addition, it is important to avoid receiving drugs that cause an increase in blood pressure. Such drugs include some anti-inflammatory and painkillers, antidepressants, contraceptive and even vasoconstrictor drops from a cold.
Charging with hypertension
Charging with hypertension is a complex of simple exercises for neck and back:
- Head slopes in all directions, circular movements of the neck clockwise and counterclockwise.
- Rotation of the pelvis in the initial position standing (legs - on the width of the shoulders).
- The slopes of the "back-back" body, "left-right."
- Walking on socks with a high knee lifting.
- Running in place for 30 seconds.
Exercises can be complemented, daily compiling new complexes of therapeutic physical education, which are aimed at strengthening the cardiovascular system.
Increased blood pressure is dangerous in that it does not worry a person for a long time, while it violates the work of important bodies. People with hypertension are important to contact the doctor in time: only regular reception of drugs allows you to keep blood pressure within normal values. The approach to the treatment of hypertension should be comprehensive: the role is played by food, rational physical activity, reception of medicines, phytopreparations, biders.
The correct approach to its disease and compliance with all recommendations will help stabilize the work of the cardiovascular system and prevent the development of hazardous complications.
Blood pressure (blood pressure) is the pressure that blood has on the walls of the vessels. According to the values, the doctors assess the state of human health and its viability. Therefore, information will be useful to readers how to reduce blood pressure at home quickly and efficiently. Learn that the jumps of the indicator appear and how to understand this without a tonometer.
5 steps how to quickly reduce pressure at home
If hell rose sharply at home, then you should not engage in self-medication. You need to call an ambulance. Before the arrival of the team of doctors, you can give first aid to yourself or who is near. Increased blood pressure in untimely actions threatens the development of ischemic stroke, hypertensive crisis and heart attack.
Rules that need to be observed to quickly reduce the pressure of the house:
Minimize motor activity and physical exertion .
Take antihypertensive drugs Quick action - Captive (in a dosage of 25-50 mg), nifedipine, (10 mg), clonidine (0.15 mg). Preparations need to be put under the tongue: so they will work faster than if you take them inside.
Hold your feet in warm water or put the mustarder on the ion muscles .The method will help to bring down the pressure on 20-30 mm.rt.
Hold your breath for 7-10 seconds, and then make 3 deep breath .Repeat exercise 2 minutes in a row.
Pull the ear of the ear 20 times down, the middle part of the sink - 20 times and ahead, and the upper - 20 times up . The reception will help reduce hell at 20-30 units. Massage is forbidden to do during oncology and diabetes mellitus.
Even if it turned out to quickly reduce the pressure at home, then you should not refuse to examine the doctor. To jump hells to do not repeat, it is necessary to observe the cardiologist and undergo treatment.
It is possible to increase the pressure at home with natural coffee or Eleutherococcus tincture. Also helps the massage of the holes above the upper lip. If on the background of reduced pressure, there is a sharp deterioration in well-being, it is necessary to call the ambulance brigade. Reduced blood pressure is dangerous in sufficient blood supply to the brain, especially in people of elderly.
Blood pressure: what is the top and bottom
In addition to arterial, there is still venous, capillary and intracardiac pressure. But from the point of view of medicine, the greatest value is the arterial - it is the main biomarker of the body's work.
When measuring blood pressure, attention is paid to the upper and lower indicator, and what it means will help understand the following decodents:
Top value or pressure (differently called systolic) - blood pressure on the walls of the vessels at the time of the greatest reduction in the heart (systole).
Lower pressure (diastolic) - Pressure on the walls of the vessels during the greatest relaxation of the heart (diastole).
The term is still used in medicine - pulse pressure. This is the difference between the upper and lower blood pressure. Normally, it is in the range of 35-50 mm.rt.st.
Norms and deviations of arterial pressure in humans: Table by the ages
For a healthy person, blood pressure is considered the norm - 120/80 mm.rt.st. Indicators may deviate in a large or smaller direction depending on the individual characteristics of the body.
Factors affecting hell:
gender (men figures are usually higher than women on (10-20 mm.rt.st);
presence of bad habits;
CHRONIC DISEASES IN ANNESSE.
To obtain objective data, all factors need to take into account. It should also be remembered that with age, the blood pressure increases and reaches the maximum value to 60-65 years.
What arterial pressure is considered normal? Upper boundary of the norm - 140/90 mm.rt.st. At higher indicators, the doctor must examine the patient and exclude its arterial hypertension. Lower boundary of the norm - 90/60 mm.rt.st. If the values are lower, there is a risk of insufficient blood supply to tissues and oxygen organs.
Normally, blood pressure on both hands should be the same (minor errors are allowed in 5 mm. The big difference in the dimensions on the right and left hand indicates the progression of atherosclerosis in large blood vessels.
Blood pressure norms for men and women see the table.
The table shows that the lowest indicators are observed in children. This is associated with a low tone of vessels. As the circulatory system is developing, indicators increase. Sharp jumps Hell is a norm for adolescents, since they have a hormonal restructuring of the body. For children of age 13-15 years, indicators 110 and 136 - the norm.
In men and women, arterial pressure increases due to atherosclerotic changes (settles of blood vessels). In the table after 70 years, the indicators and for men and for women are reduced. This is due to a decrease in the strength and elasticity of vessels.
High and increased pressure: how much and how to recognize
Increased pressure is considered to be 10-20% of the norm in a large side, high - more than 20%. A persistent increase in blood pressure is called arterial hypertension - this is a disease that requires a constant survey at the cardiologist.
Raising points up to 180/120 mm.T.St - hypertensive crisis. In this situation, the patient requires urgent hospitalization and treatment in the hospital.
There are a number of signs, how to understand that the pressure is high:
Hypertension provoke diseases of the cardiovascular system and atherosclerosis. Other reasons why the upper and lower pressure is high:
overabundance calcium in the body;
excess weight and lack of physical activity;
violation of the hormonal background;
Short-term jumps can provoke coffee or alcoholic beverages; food poisoning; reception of hormonal drugs; increased physical exertion; High noise.
Low pressure: indicators, causes and symptoms
The reduced blood pressure indicators are those that deviate from the norm in a smaller side of no more than 20%, low by 20% or more. A persistent decline in pressure is called arterial hypotension (hypotension).
Symptoms of hypotension:
increased fatigue, decay of forces;
skin pallor and increased sweating;
Menstruation delay in women or problems with potency in men;
- Violation of cardiac rhythm.
The main causes of hypotionic pathology of the endocrine, nervous and vascular system: diabetes mellitus, hypothyroidism, varicose, myocarditis, anemia, osteochondrosis. A short-term reduction in blood pressure occurs after a sharp decrease in the volume of circulating blood (injuries, operations), dehydration of the body and acclimatization.
In 2018, American cardiologists have established a new target value of the diastolic indicator - 80 mm.rt.st. - How safer than previous 90 mm.
How to measure blood pressure
The instrument for measuring arterial pressure is called a tonometer. For home measurements, the instruments of two types are manual and automatic.
Manual devices work on mechanical-acoustic type: they allow you to listen to sound oscillations coming from internal organs. Mechanical devices fix accurate measurements and have a long service life. The only minus of the tonometer is the complexity in its operation (from the first time not every person can decorate the testimony).
The automatic device is easy to use: just click the button and wait for reading on the screen. The cost of tonometers of this type is higher than that of mechanical. Automatic tonometers can give errors in measurements.
Rules for preparation for measuring blood pressure:
- abandon smoking and food consumption for 30 minutes;
- Take a comfortable position: Sitting with a support for the back of the chair or sofa;
- expose the forearm area;
- Put your hand on the support and relax her;
- Check the state of the device: there should be no twists and nodes on its wires.
Instructions, how to measure the pressure manual tonometer:
Make the cuff into the hand so that between it and the surface of the forearm was the distance of 1 finger.
Install the stethoscope on the elbow bending, slightly fitted it under the cuff.
Insert hearing tips into the ears.
Intensively compressing squeeze the tonometer pear to catch up the air into the cuff.
To carefully listen in the sounds emanating from membrane tips. The first shocks will show, at what level is systolic pressure.
Repeat pumping until the arrow on the dial rises above 30 mm.rt.st. The moment of disappearance of the tones will indicate the value of the diastolic blood pressure.
The procedure will need to be repeated after 2 minutes. Then calculate the average value between the two testimony.
Causes of improper pressure measurement with manual instrument:
Invalid body position - standing or lying;
too strong air injection into the cuff;
The electronic measurement device is easier to produce. Therefore, doctors recommend it to acquire all patients with a diagnosis of hypertension or hypotension. Rules, how to measure pressure by automatic device:
Connect the edges of the cuff and put it with a circular winding method. The cuff must be located 2-2.5 cm above the elbow bend.
Start the device by pressing the button.
Wait while the device pumps and empties the air.
The first digit that appears on the tonometer screen will indicate the top, and the second is the lower pressure.
To accurately measure pressure, you need to properly prepare for the procedure and make sure that the manipulations were carried out correctly. Most people (especially older) are trying to take testimony as often as possible. But it is incorrect and indications obtained during frequent measurements are hit by the attending physician. Properly measure the pressure twice a day: in the morning and evening. If the readings differ very much from normal, then you need to immediately contact the cardiologist. The doctor must stabilize hell.
Prevention of blood pressure jumps
It is not enough to know what arterial pressure is and how to measure it. It is important to have information, how to prevent the progression of the disease or avoid its complications.
There are many common reasons why hypertension and hypotension develops: stress, hereditary factors, prolonged depression. But there are also separate recommendations, how to prevent the development of one or another disease.
To prevent hypertension, you need:
correlate body weight;
refuse smoking and alcoholic beverages;
remove salt from diet;
to live an active lifestyle"
Lower the day of the day
The prevention of hypotension includes a refusal of too strict diets, a full sleep (at least 8-9 hours), regular walks in the fresh air, receiving sedatives with nervous overvoltage.
Blood pressure can deviate from the norm of 120/80 mm.T.Thin in a large or smaller side. It is possible to talk about the development of hypertension or hypotension only when values do not correspond to the commonly installed more than 20%. Cardiologist should be treated with the treatment and diagnosis of these diseases. It will not be possible to achieve the stabilization of blood pressure, because it is necessary to know the exact cause of pathology.
List of sources:
Arterial hypertension [text] / under. ed. V. Zidek, lane. with it. ; Ed. D. A. Anichkova. - Moscow: Gootar Media, 2009. - 206 p. : IL. - Item. Declaration: with. 204-206.
Bakseyev, V. I. Hypertensive disease and ischemic heart disease - the problem of the doctor and patient [Text] / V. I. Bakseyev, N. M. Kolomolez, B. L. Shklovsky. - Moscow: Publishing House Binom, 2015. - 488 p. : IL. - Bibliogr.: With. 464-484 (354 names).
Vachev, A. N. The course of resistant arterial hypertension in a remote period after operation of carotid endarterectomy [Text] / A. N. Vachev, E. V. Frolova, D. V. Nefedova // Angiology and vascular surgery. - 2017. - № 1. - P. 170-174.
What does the upper and lower blood pressure mean
December 13, 2018.
In order to stabilize the state and hypertension, and hypotonized should learn how to measure the pressure with a tonometer and understand what the pressure is top and the bottom.
In order to stabilize the state and hypertension, and hypotonized should learn how to measure the pressure with a tonometer and understand what the pressure is top and the bottom. Only in this case can be successfully monitored by blood pressure and take special pharmacy hypotensive drugs (to reduce pressure) or, on the contrary, tonic (to increase it).
Hell includes systolic and diastolic pressure. This is the upper and lower indicators, respectively. Hell is a marker, which is judged by the strength of abbreviations.
What affects the test indicators?
First of all, the functioning of the aorta and large arteries acting as a kind of buffer. This ensures a negative impact on the body tissue and internal organs.
If you describe the process simple and without complicated medical terms, it will look like this:
- Cardiac bag is reduced, the aortic valve closes. At this point, blood from the lungs saturated with oxygen comes into the heart.
- Then the reduction occurs again. Blood rushes into all organs.
The blood pressure indicators are created with the participation of the entire circulatory system: the heart muscle, vessels and blood, which moves along it.
The figures obtained will depend on a number of factors, it is:
- blood resistance;
- blood volume emitted after one reduction (systole);
- The intensity of abbreviations of the heart muscle.
The highest value is formed when cutting the heart and blood release from left ventricle. The lowest values are obtained at the moment of blood penetration into the right atrium. At this time, the main heart muscle relaxes (diastole).
Why is it important to measure blood pressure?
Because it is the most important indicator indicative of the work of the entire human circulatory system of any age. To be healthy, on time replenish your home first-aid kit with high-quality drugs for the heart and vessels from the social pharmacy network.
Few know what systolic and diastolic pressure is and, it is important that both of these indicators remain normal. Measure blood pressure adopted by the Korotkov method. Tonometers today work precisely on this principle. After measuring blood pressure, doctors receive two numbers showing the systolic, as well as the diastolic index.
The norm of such indicators may vary, which depends on many factors, age, human sex, as well as the presence of concomitant diseases. The big difference between systolic and diastolic pressure is considered the norm, but a small difference between these indicators may mean health problems.
The word itself is systolic, comes from the medical term - systole, which denotes a short period of heart abbreviation. This level is considered the upper and characterizes the pressure force in the arteries during the heart abbreviation. At the same time, the ventricles of the heart are compressed, as a result of which the blood is pushed into artery and vessels, so such a pressure occurs.
This indicator directly depends on the activity of the muscles of the heart and its condition, as well as from the speed with which the cardiac abbreviation and strength is a process. Doctors believe that the upper blood pressure is high with a rapid reduction of the heart, so systolic pressure is also called cardiac. However, such a statement is erroneously, because in the process of forming this indicator, large vessels and arteries, which serve as a kind of buffer are involved.
Blood is thrown into the bloodstream system at one systole, it reaches the arteries and vessels in a short period, and they are able to resist, from which the upper pressure indicator depends. The stronger the resistance provided by the arteries, the higher the tonometer arrow when measuring the systolic indicator.
The norm of the systolic pressure indicator is considered to be 120 mm RT. pillar.
Such indicators may be calculated by human age, as well as on some individual characteristics. Sometimes doctors fix the level of upper pressure in the region of 130-140 mm RT in the patient. Post and this can also be an option for the norm. If this figure is even higher, we are talking about hypertension.
Causes of increased systolic pressure:
- Diseases of the Cardiovascular Department of the Organism;
- Thickening of vascular walls;
- reduced hemoglobin in blood (anemia);
- kidney pathology;
- Excessive kidney activity and hormone production thyroids;
- violation of the activity of the aorta valve;
- Changes in an age nature in the walls of large arteries.
Between the systolic and diastolic arterial index should be a big gap, if there is a small difference between these indicators, this is a reason to immediately consult a doctor.
The diastolic pressure is called the bottom, this medical term has occurred from the word - diastole, the decoding of which means heart relaxation, following systole. The formation of the lower digits occurs due to the reduction of peripheral arteries conductive blood to organs and tissues of the whole body. The state of the vascular system plays a significant role in diastolic pressure indicators. If the tone of the vessels is low, their elasticity is insufficient, then the lower indicators will be far from the norm.
At the end of the heart abbreviation, the aorta valve is closed, which prevents the reverse current of the blood. During this period, the heart is filled with new blood enriched with nutrients and oxygen for the production of the following reduction. At this time, blood is freely moving by arteries. In addition, the underlying blood volume in the circulatory system and the heart rate is influenced on the lower pressure index. A large gap between systolic and diastolic arterial pressure speaks of normal processes in the cardiovascular system.
The main causes of hypertension
Causes of high diastolic pressure:
- Thyroid diseases accompanied by increased synthesis of hormones.
- The fluid delay in the body, which is provoked by the failure of the kidney. This leads to an increase in the total blood volume in the body.
- Hormonal disorders that arise against the background of increased renal hormones.
To answer the question in detail that this is blood pressure top and lower, and what the reasons for the deviation of these indicators from the norm can only be the doctor. A small difference between these levels can be a serious threat to human health. The norm of the lower digits is considered to be the figure 80, but its deviation is allowed to any side if it is insignificant.
In medicine there is such a definition as a pulse pressure. This indicator is calculated by subtracting the figures of the diastolic indicator from systolic.
If we consider the normal level of arterial index, as 120/80, it means that the pulse pressure will be 40. However, such data may be different, doctors say that 50 can also be a normal pulse index. A large gap between the upper and lower indicator of the tonometer is capable of becoming the norm, if it is observed in a person always and is its individual feature.
Hypertension is diagnosed if the upper and lower blood pressure is increased.
Causes of hypertension:
- Increased body weight;
- hereditary factor;
- Harmful habits, in particular, smoking;
- frequent stresses and mental loads;
- violation of the activities of the cardiovascular department of the body and kidney;
- failures in the functioning of the thyroid gland;
- Frequent diarrhea.
In fact, find out exactly the causes of the development of this disease are not always possible. Hypertension negatively affects all internal organs, as well as human body systems, so you need to pay attention to the slightest failures in pressure testimony. Each person should know what the upper and lower pressure means.
|Children up to 1 year||95/67.||95/64.|
|Children from 10 to 20 years||103/70||103/71|
|Young people from 20 to 30 years||123/77.||116/73.|
|Young people from 30 to 40 years||126/78.||120/76.|
|People from 40 to 50 years||129/82.||127/80|
|People from 50 to 60||135/84.||137/83.|
|People from 60 to 70 years||142/86.||144/86.|
|People from 70 to 80 years||145/83.||159/86.|
|People from 80 years old||147/83||157/84.|
It should be borne in mind that therapy is necessary only in the case when a regular increase in the arterial index is recorded.
If the gap between the upper and lower pressure is higher or below the norm, then this indicates the presence of pathology in the human body.
- The difference between systolic, as well as the diastolic indicator below 40 units speaks of possible aortic stenosis or other diseases that arise due to reduced shock volume.
- The difference between the upper and lower indicator above 40 units speaks about the accelerated aging of all internal organs, especially the heart, brain.
In violation of the normal blood pressure level, the doctor will be able to find out what it means and what medications are necessary. Alone to drink pills, without appointing a doctor, dangerous to health, as well as life. Determine, elevated or low pressure lower, it is impossible, in contrast to the top.
Today, measuring blood pressure is quite simple, there are tonometers, allowing to produce measuring manipulations of the house and in a short time. However, few people know how the tonometer invented.
The first measurements of the blood pressure level produced Stephen Halex, which has done this by an invasive method, inserting a pipe to the artery of a horse. It happened in 1709.
Later, after a hundred years, the development of a tonometer continued another scientist-physicist Jean Louis Marie Poazoyl. Of course, in those days, no one knew that systolic and diastolic blood pressure.
It was this scientist for the first time that applied a mercury pressure gauge to determine the level of this indicator. The first time this device was tested during a leg amputation surgery in the femoral area. The device has shown the upper pressure of 120 mm Hg. pillar.
The next scientist (Karl Ludwig) continued to develop a monometer, improving it. Karl called Kimographer. In fact, this device resembled a mercury monometer, but more modern and perfect. However, it was not easy to measure the pressure to a person. To obtain data on the level of the blood index, it was necessary to immerse the patient's artery tube, which delivered a significant discomfort, and also remained a high probability of infection of the patient.
A little later, a device called "Ludwig's Blood Watch", which made it possible to measure heart emission, as well as regional blood flow. The modern tonometer differs significantly from its predecessors, the pressure today does not represent any complexity, and the readings of this device are very accurate.
Which means the upper and lower blood pressure, as well as what the consequences of deviations from the norm of these indicators will tell the doctor. If such a situation occurs, you need to immediately go to the doctor, to pass the survey, find out the causes of the development of pathology. Today hypertension is amenable to treatment, with the help of drugs, it is possible to keep the level of systolic, as well as the diastolic indicator normally.